lsof命令详解

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lsof在linux中是一个很重要的命令,这里简单记录一下.

本文首发于公众号:天空的代码世界,微信号:tiankonguse

介绍

lsof全名list open files,含义为显示打开的文件列表.
我们都是知道,在linux的世界里,所有的事物都是文件, 对事物的操作就是对文件的操作.
比如设备是文件,目录是文件,socket是文件.我们通过lsof命令可以得到很多有用的信息.

tiankonguse:~ $ lsof -i -n
COMMAND   PID        USER   FD   TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME
ssh      3860 tiankonguse    3u  IPv4 277226      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:55470->52.175.36.207:ssh (ESTABLISHED)
ssh      3860 tiankonguse    4u  IPv6 277256      0t0  TCP [::1]:7070 (LISTEN)
ssh      3860 tiankonguse    5u  IPv4 277257      0t0  TCP 127.0.0.1:7070 (LISTEN)
ssh      3860 tiankonguse    9u  IPv4 392596      0t0  TCP 127.0.0.1:7070->127.0.0.1:47308 (CLOSE_WAIT)
ssh      3860 tiankonguse   10u  IPv4 425556      0t0  TCP 127.0.0.1:7070->127.0.0.1:47424 (ESTABLISHED)
ssh      3860 tiankonguse   11u  IPv4 474716      0t0  TCP 127.0.0.1:7070->127.0.0.1:47436 (ESTABLISHED)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  102u  IPv4 474141      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:54857->220.181.76.72:http (CLOSE_WAIT)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  103u  IPv4 424629      0t0  TCP 127.0.0.1:47424->127.0.0.1:7070 (ESTABLISHED)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  104u  IPv4 432692      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:36335->203.208.50.175:https (ESTABLISHED)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  106u  IPv4 476207      0t0  TCP 127.0.0.1:47436->127.0.0.1:7070 (ESTABLISHED)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  111u  IPv4 273013      0t0  UDP *:mdns

字段介绍

lsof默认显示字段有COMMAND PID USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME.

含义如下:

  • COMMAND 程序命令,默认以9个字符长度显示的命令名称。可使用+c参数指定显示的宽度,若+c后跟的参数为零,则显示命令的全名
  • PID 进程id
  • PPID 父进程的IP号,默认不显示,当使用-R参数可打开。
  • PGID 进程组的ID编号,默认也不会显示,当使用-g参数时可打开。
  • USER 命令的执行UID或系统中登陆的用户名称。默认显示为用户名,当使用-l参数时,可显示UID。
  • FD 文件描述符
  • TYPE IPv4的包,IPv6包,DIR 目录,LINK 链接文件等
  • DEVICE 使用character specialblock special表示的设备号
  • SIZE/OFF 文件的大小,如果不能用大小表示的,会留空。使用-s参数控制。
  • NODE 本地文件的node码,或者协议,如TCP等
  • NAME 挂载点和文件的全路径(链接会被解析为实际路径),或者连接双方的地址和端口、状态等

使用

查看端口

tiankonguse:~ $ lsof -i :80
COMMAND   PID        USER   FD   TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  102u  IPv4 537284      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:41976->117.79.92.146:http (CLOSE_WAIT)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  104u  IPv4 539670      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:34899->151.101.16.133:http (ESTABLISHED)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  105u  IPv4 539781      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:60814->93-46-8-89.ip105.fastwebnet.it:http (SYN_SENT)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  118u  IPv4 537818      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:34900->151.101.16.133:http (ESTABLISHED)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  122u  IPv4 537900      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:60815->93-46-8-89.ip105.fastwebnet.it:http (SYN_SENT)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  124u  IPv4 538905      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:41978->117.79.92.146:http (CLOSE_WAIT)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  128u  IPv4 538906      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:41979->117.79.92.146:http (CLOSE_WAIT)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  155u  IPv4 539020      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:34901->151.101.16.133:http (ESTABLISHED)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  170u  IPv4 539036      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:58368->220.181.7.190:http (CLOSE_WAIT)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  174u  IPv4 539021      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:34902->151.101.16.133:http (ESTABLISHED)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  183u  IPv4 539022      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:34903->151.101.16.133:http (ESTABLISHED)
chrome  31615 tiankonguse  184u  IPv4 539023      0t0  TCP 192.168.31.137:34904->151.101.16.133:http (ESTABLISHED)

查看进程名

tiankonguse:~ $ lsof -c chrome | more
lsof: WARNING: can't stat() ext4 file system /var/lib/docker/aufs
      Output information may be incomplete.
COMMAND   PID        USER   FD      TYPE             DEVICE SIZE/OFF     NODE NAME
chrome   1880 tiankonguse  cwd       DIR                0,3        0    24098 /proc/31953/fdinfo
chrome   1880 tiankonguse  rtd       DIR                0,3        0    24098 /proc/31953/fdinfo
chrome   1880 tiankonguse  txt       REG                8,2 99609936 24248328 /opt/google/chrome/chrome
chrome   1880 tiankonguse  DEL       REG               0,21             52587 /run/shm/.com.google.Chrome.SE37st

查看进程号

tiankonguse:~ $ lsof -p 2127
lsof: WARNING: can't stat() ext4 file system /var/lib/docker/aufs
      Output information may be incomplete.
COMMAND  PID USER   FD      TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME
apache2 2127 root  cwd   unknown                      /proc/2127/cwd (readlink: Permission denied)
apache2 2127 root  rtd   unknown                      /proc/2127/root (readlink: Permission denied)
apache2 2127 root  txt   unknown                      /proc/2127/exe (readlink: Permission denied)
apache2 2127 root NOFD                                /proc/2127/fd (opendir: Permission denied)

查看进程组

tiankonguse:~ $ lsof -g 2127
lsof: WARNING: can't stat() ext4 file system /var/lib/docker/aufs
      Output information may be incomplete.
COMMAND  PID PGID     USER   FD      TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME
apache2 2127 2127     root  cwd   unknown                      /proc/2127/cwd (readlink: Permission denied)
apache2 2127 2127     root  rtd   unknown                      /proc/2127/root (readlink: Permission denied)
apache2 2127 2127     root  txt   unknown                      /proc/2127/exe (readlink: Permission denied)
apache2 2127 2127     root NOFD                                /proc/2127/fd (opendir: Permission denied)
apache2 2156 2127 www-data  cwd   unknown                      /proc/2156/cwd (readlink: Permission denied)
apache2 2156 2127 www-data  rtd   unknown                      /proc/2156/root (readlink: Permission denied)
apache2 2156 2127 www-data  txt   unknown                      /proc/2156/exe (readlink: Permission denied)
...

查看目录

lsof +D /home/

万能的其他

grep搜索, 如找到那些被删除但是没释放的文件.

lsof | grep xxx

本文首发于公众号:天空的代码世界,微信号:tiankonguse

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