比特币-你必须知道事情

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如果你打算进入比特币领域,有几点必须了解一下。

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这里主要记录算法,数学,计算机技术等好玩的东西。

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零、背景

我相信比特币刚出来的时候大家就都听说了,但是大部分人一直没去了解这个概念。
2018年是新的一年,我打算去了解新世界,拥抱新概念:人工智能(AI,大数据)、分布式账单(区块链,数字货币,比特币)、金融经济学(股票)等。
这里先从比特币开始,为自己记录下一些keyword。

这篇文章来自 https://bitcoin.org/en/you-need-to-know ,感兴趣的可以看看英文原文。

一、前言

如果你准备进入比特币的世界,有几个注意事项需要看看。
比特币的转账方式和银行有点不一样,所以我们在正式使用比特币之前需要花点时间来了解一下比特币。 我们应该想对待银行的存款一样对待比特币,有时候需要更上心点,不然就被骗走了,从而导致金钱损失。

If you are about to explore Bitcoin, there are a few things you should know.
Bitcoin lets you exchange money in a different way than with usual banks.
As such, you should take time to inform yourself before using Bitcoin for any serious transaction.
Bitcoin should be treated with the same care as your regular wallet, or even more in some cases!

二、保护钱包

和在现实生活中一样,你必须保护好自己的钱包。
使用比特币可以轻而易举地在世界范围内转移资金,也让你完全掌控自己的资金。
这样强大的功能也带来了很大的安全顾虑。
同时,只要正确使用,比特币可以提供高级别的安全性。
请随时牢记,你有责任采取良好的做法来保护自己的财产。

Like in real life, your wallet must be secured.
Bitcoin makes it possible to transfer value anywhere in a very easy way and it allows you to be in control of your money.
Such great features also come with great security concerns.
At the same time, Bitcoin can provide very high levels of security if used correctly.
Always remember that it is your responsibility to adopt good practices in order to protect your money.

三、比特币的价格多变

由于比特币年轻的经济结构,新颖的特性,以及偶尔的市场流动性不足,比特币的价格可能在短时间内无规律地大起大落。
所以,目前不建议用比特币来保存你的积蓄。
比特币应该被视为高风险资产,千万不要将你无法承担损失的资金以比特币的形式保存。
如果你收到比特币付款,有很多服务供应商可以将比特币兑换为当地货币。

The price of a bitcoin can unpredictably increase or decrease over a short period of time due to its young economy, novel nature, and sometimes illiquid markets.
Consequently, keeping your savings with Bitcoin is not recommended at this point.
Bitcoin should be seen like a high risk asset, and you should never store money that you cannot afford to lose with Bitcoin.
If you receive payments with Bitcoin, many service providers can convert them to your local currency.

四、比特币交易是不可逆的

任何比特币交易都是不可撤销的,只能由收款人退回比特币。
这意味着你需要注意,与你了解和信任或者已经建立的信誉的个人和组织交易。
在他们那边,商家需要控制那些顾客可见的支付请求。
比特币系统能检测出打字错误,通常不会让你不小心付款到一个无效地址。
在将来可能还会有其它为消费者提供更多选择和保护的服务。

Any transaction issued with Bitcoin cannot be reversed, they can only be refunded by the person receiving the funds.
That means you should take care to do business with people and organizations you know and trust, or who have an established reputation.
For their part, businesses need to keep control of the payment requests they are displaying to their customers.
Bitcoin can detect typos and usually won’t let you send money to an invalid address by mistake.
Additional services might exist in the future to provide more choice and protection for the consumer.

五、比特币并不是匿名的

在使用比特币的时候保护你的隐私需要花费一些精力。
所有的比特币交易都公开且永久地存储在网络中,意味着任何人都能查看任何一个比特币地址的余额和交易记录。
然而,除非在购买过程中或者其他状况下透露了身份信息,比特币地址背后的真实身份是保密的。
这也就是建议一个比特币地址仅使用一次的原因之一。
永远记住养成良好的习惯来保护你的隐私是你自己的责任。

Some effort is required to protect your privacy with Bitcoin.
All Bitcoin transactions are stored publicly and permanently on the network, which means anyone can see the balance and transactions of any Bitcoin address.
However, the identity of the user behind an address remains unknown until information is revealed during a purchase or in other circumstances.
This is one reason why Bitcoin addresses should only be used once.
Always remember that it is your responsibility to adopt good practices in order to protect your privacy.

六、即时交易相比没那么安全

比特币交易通常在几秒钟内发出并在接下来10分钟内开始收到确认。
在那段时间里,一笔交易可被视为真实但依然可撤销。
不诚实的用户可能会试图欺骗。
如果你等不及收到确认,要求对方支付小额交易费用或使用一个不安全交易检测系统可以增强安全性。
对于如1000美元的大额交易,等待6个以上的确认是比较合理的。
每一个确认都成 指数级地降低交易撤销的风险。

Transactions don’t start out as irreversible.
Instead, they get a confirmation score that indicates how hard it is to reverse them (see table).
Each confirmation takes between a few seconds and 90 minutes, with 10 minutes being the average.
If the transaction pays too low a fee or is otherwise atypical, getting the first confirmation can take much longer.

七、比特币仍有实验性

比特币是一个正处于积极发展中的实验性新货币。
尽管它的实验性正随着它不断增长的使用率而在逐渐减小,但是要记住比特币是一个全新的发明。
它正探索以往从未被尝试过的理念,因此,没有人可以预测比特币的未来。

Bitcoin is an experimental new currency that is in active development.
Each improvement makes Bitcoin more appealing but also reveals new challenges as Bitcoin adoption grows.
During these growing pains you might encounter increased fees, slower confirmations, or even more severe issues.
Be prepared for problems and consult a technical expert before making any major investments, but keep in mind that nobody can predict Bitcoin’s future.

八、政府税收和法规

比特币不是一种官方货币。
也就是说,大多数的行政区域还是会要求你缴纳收入、销售、工资和投资收益等有价值的东西的税款,这其中也包括比特币。
确保你遵守了政府和/或者当地市政机关制定的税收和其他法律法规是你自己的责任。

Bitcoin is not an official currency.
That said, most jurisdictions still require you to pay income, sales, payroll, and capital gains taxes on anything that has value, including bitcoins.
It is your responsibility to ensure that you adhere to tax and other legal or regulatory mandates issued by your government and/or local municipalities.

九、结语

数字货币是一个高风险的投资渠道,投资需谨慎。

我之前写了一篇文章《什么是理财》,后来梳理了一个理财产品的各种年化收益表,分享给大家。

这篇文章的比特币地址: bitcoin:15eofUb4QdyqKr5So9S4spQyBzNEw2Mczd

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